What chemical group is found at the 5 end of a DNA molecule?

The Polynucleotide Chain

The Polynucleotide Chain One end of the chain ends with a phosphate linked to the 5′ carbon of the sugar and is called the 5′ end. The other end of the chain ends with an hydroxyl group linked to the 3′ carbon of the sugar and is called the 3′ end.

Also, why does DNA have a 5 and 3 end? The 5′ and 3‘ mean “five prime” and “three prime”, which indicate the carbon numbers in the DNA’s sugar backbone. The 5‘ carbon has a phosphate group attached to it and the 3‘ carbon a hydroxyl (-OH) group. This asymmetry gives a DNA strand a “direction”.

Similarly, you may ask, what is on the 5 end of DNA?

Each DNA strand has two ends. The 5end of the DNA is the one with the terminal phosphate group on the 5‘ carbon of the deoxyribose; the 3’ end is the one with a terminal hydroxyl (OH) group on the deoxyribose of the 3′ carbon of the deoxyribose.

What is attached to the 5 carbon of deoxyribose in DNA?

The monomer units of DNA are nucleotides, and the polymer is known as a “polynucleotide.” Each nucleotide consists of a 5carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogen containing base attached to the sugar, and a phosphate group.

Is DNA a protein?

No, DNA is not a protein. The difference is they use different subunits. DNA is a poly-nucleotide, protein is a poly-peptide (peptide bonds link amino acids). DNA is a long-term data store, like a hard drive, while proteins are molecular machines, like robot arms.

What are 5 and 3 ends?

A key feature of all nucleic acids is that they have two distinctive ends: the 5′ (5-prime) and 3′ (3-prime) ends. This terminology refers to the 5′ and 3′ carbons on the sugar. For both DNA (shown above) and RNA, the 5′ end bears a phosphate, and the 3′ end a hydroxyl group.

What is a polynucleotide chain?

polynucleotide chain. a sequence of NUCLEOTIDES joined together. RNA generally consists of one polynucleotide chain, while DNA may consist of one chain (single-stranded DNA), or two chains bonded between the bases in a system of complementary pairing: adenine with thymine, guanine with cytosine (double-stranded DNA).

What happens if you have too much nucleic acid?

Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders.

Why is ribose sugar in nucleic acids?

During evolution ribose was selected as the exclusive sugar component of nucleic acids. The selection is explained by using molecular models and by eliminating most of the other common sugars by looking at their chemical structure and envisioning how they would fit in a nucleic acid model.

What is the structure of nucleic acids?

Basic structure Nucleic acids are polynucleotides—that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a pentose (five-carbon) sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group.

Why is it 5 to 3?

DNA replication goes in the 5′ to 3′ direction because DNA polymerase acts on the 3′-OH of the existing strand for adding free nucleotides.

Do you read DNA from 5 to 3?

During transcription, the RNA polymerase read the template DNA strand in the 3′→5′ direction, but the mRNA is formed in the 5′ to 3′ direction. The codons of the mRNA reading frame are translated in the 5′→3′ direction into amino acids by a ribosome to produce a polypeptide chain.

What is antiparallel DNA?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite directionality (alignments). An example is the two complementary strands of a DNA double helix, which run in opposite directions alongside each other.

Why does DNA replication occur in the 5 to 3 direction?

DNA replication goes in the 5′ to 3′ direction because DNA polymerase acts on the 3′-OH of the existing strand for adding free nucleotides.

What materials does DNA polymerase require in order to synthesize a complete strand of DNA?

In order for DNA polymerase to synthesize a complete new strand of DNA, it requires a template to determine the order of bases on the new strand, a 3′-OH end to add more nucleotides onto, and the full set of four kinds of nucleotides (A,C,T,G) if they are needed to complement the template strand.